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Glossary – Digital Marketing & E-Commerce


Ad extension: A Google Ads feature that shows additional information about the business

Agency: An outside partner that fulfills a company’s digital marketing and advertising needs 

Attribution: Determining which content and channels are responsible for generating leads, conversions, or sign-ups

Awareness stage: The first stage of the marketing funnel, when a potential customer first becomes aware of the product or service


Brand: How a business or organization is perceived by the public

Brand equity: The value consumers attribute to one brand’s offerings when compared with similar products from another brand

Brand safety: Keeping a brand’s reputation safe when they advertise online

Business goal: A desired aim, achievement, or outcome for a business

Business-to-business (B2B): Refers to when businesses sell products or services to other businesses (when businesses purchase from each other)

Business-to-consumer (B2C): Refers to when businesses sell products or services to consumers (when consumers purchase from businesses)


Change management: Methods, practices, approaches, and processes that organizations take to ensure changes are implemented smoothly

Consideration stage: The second stage of the marketing funnel, when a potential customer’s interest builds for a product or service

Consumer-to-business (C2B): Refers to when individuals (consumers) sell products or services to businesses (when businesses purchase from consumers)

Consumer-to-consumer (C2C): Refers to when individuals (consumers) sell products or services to other consumers (when consumers purchase from each other)

Content marketing: A marketing technique that focuses on creating and distributing valuable content to a specific audience

Conversion: The completion of an activity that contributes to the success of a business

Conversion rate: The percentage of users or website visitors who completed a desired action, such as clicking on a link in an email or purchasing a product

Conversion stage: The third stage of the marketing funnel, when marketers capitalize on the interest people have already shown

Cost per click (CPC): The amount an advertiser pays when someone clicks on a PPC ad

Customer journey: The path customers take from learning about a product to getting questions answered, to making a purchase

Customer journey map: A visualization of the touchpoints a typical customer encounters along their purchase journey

Customer lifetime value (LTV or CLV): The average revenue generated per customer over a certain period of time

Customer persona: Represents a group of similar people in a desirable audience.


Data: A collection of facts or information

Data analysis: Examining data to draw conclusions, make predictions, and drive informed decision-making

Data analytics: Monitoring and evaluating data to gain actionable insights

Data anonymization: Techniques to mask or remove personal information from data to protect the identities of people

Data bias: Human error that skews data collection or interpretation of data in a certain direction

Data-driven attribution: Measures customer engagement with marketing content across channels to understand what is motivating them to take action

Data ethics: The study and evaluation of moral challenges related to data collection and analysis

Data privacy: Rights of individuals under the law to control how their personal information is collected, processed, shared, archived, and deleted 

Data pulling: Collecting data from analytics tools and putting it in a spreadsheet or database

Data reporting: Organizing and summarizing data to track performance across marketing and sales efforts

Data storytelling: Conveying data insights to a specific audience using a clear and compelling narrative

Data visualizations: Graphical representations of data that convey information

Digital channel: Any communication method or platform a business can use to reach its target audience online

Digital marketing: The practice of reaching consumers online through digital channels with the aim of turning them into customers

Display ad: A visual ad format placed on websites or applications


Earned media: Positive digital exposure generated through personal or public recommendations

E-commerce: The buying and selling of goods or services using the internet

Email marketing: Sending messages to a list of existing subscribers to share information, drive sales, or create community

Engagement marketing: (refer to experiential marketing)

Experiential marketing: The process of encouraging consumers to not only purchase a brand or product but to experience it


First click attribution: Assigns all the credit to the first touchpoint that eventually leads to a conversion

Frequency: How many times an individual encounters an ad.


Impressions: The total number of times an ad appears on people’s screens 

Inclusive marketing: The practice of improving representation and belonging within the marketing and advertising materials that an organization creates

Influencer marketing: The process of enlisting influential people to endorse or mention a brand or product to their followers on social media

In-house: Within a single company


Key performance indicator (KPI): A measurement used to gauge how successful a business is in its effort to reach a business or marketing goal

Keyword: A search term people use to find information, products, and services online


Last click attribution: Assigns all the credit to the last known touchpoint before conversion

Lead: A potential customer who has interacted with a brand and shared personal information, like an email address

Linear attribution: Assigns equal credit to each touchpoint along the customer journey

Local search: A search query that generates local-based search results

Local SEO: Optimizing content so that it displays in Google’s local search algorithms

Loyalty stage: The fourth stage of the marketing funnel, when customers become repeat customers and brand advocates


Marketing funnel: A visual representation of the process through which people go from learning about a brand to becoming loyal customers

Media mix: A combination of digital channels marketers use to reach their goals and how they divide their budget among them


Omnichannel: The integration or synchronization of content on multiple channels

Owned media: All the digital content a brand fully controls


Paid media: Any form of digital promotion a brand pays to put online

Pain points: The problems customers want to solve 

Pay-per-click (PPC): A type of advertising that allows the advertiser to pay only when someone clicks on an ad link

Performance marketing: The process of using concrete information about customer behaviors to plan and refine marketing and sales strategies

Performance reporting: (refer to data reporting)

Personally identifiable information (PII): Information that could be used to directly identify, contact, or locate an individual


Reach: The total number of unique individuals who encounter an ad across their different 


Return on ad spend (ROAS): How much revenue is gained versus how much was spent.


Search engine marketing (SEM): Generating traffic to a website through paid ads that appear in search engine results

Search engine optimization (SEO): The process of increasing the visibility of website pages on search engines to attract more relevant traffic

Search engine results pages (SERPs): The pages of results a search engine produces when someone performs a search

Segmentation: Dividing an email subscriber list into smaller groups based on criteria like interests, location, or purchase history

Social media marketing: The process of creating content for different social media platforms to drive engagement and promote a business or product


Target audience: The group of people most likely to purchase a company’s products

Touchpoint: Any interaction a customer has with a brand during their purchase journey 

Transferable skills: Skills from other areas that can help someone progress in a career in marketing

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